LINGUISTIC PROFICIENCY DEVELOPMENT THROUGH SCAFFOLDING: A SPANISH TEACHER’S BELIEFS AND PRACTICES IN AUSTRALIA
In determining the implementation and execution of the classroom activities, the teacher’s beliefs plays an important role as one of the fundamental aspects of language teaching. In-depth, the beliefs also influence the learner’s competency and the achievement of learning outcomes. This research aims at observing the beliefs of a Spanish language teacher in a private language school in Australia. Data were gathered through interview and classroom observations. The interview was designed to explore the teacher’s beliefs regarding the language learning approach. Furthermore, the classroom observations were conducted through 1) complete observer observation and 2) complete participants observation. They were carried out to see to what extent the teacher implemented the beliefs into action. Pre-classroom questionnaires on the learner’s background were distributed to know the learners’ background. In the era where communicative approach becomes the axis of language teaching, this study suggests “scaffolding” as an alternative approach to language teaching. The finding indicates that some primary factors affecting the teacher to hold his beliefs are: limited classroom duration, small class size, and the condition of Spanish as a foreign language (FL) in Australia – where learning resources are limited. In the learning condition where the target language (TL) resources found to be scarce, this ‘scaffolding’ approach successfully and effectively equips learners with adequate knowledge of Spanish. Taking the ‘scaffolding’ as the major foundation to develop learners’ linguistic proficiency, this research provides insight regarding the use of ‘scaffolding’ toward language teaching and learning.
Gleeson, M., & Davison, C. (2016). A conflict between experience and professional learning: Subject teachers’ beliefs about teaching English language learners. RELC Journal, 47(1), 43-57. doi:10.1177/0033688216631221
Google Trends. (2019, November 30). Retrieved November 30, 2019, from https://trends.google.com/trends/explore?date=today%205- y&q=%2Fm%2F03_djz,%2Fm%2F0c7hpz,%2Fm%2F0cjrb8
Hue Nguyen, M. (2013). EFL students’ reflections on peer scaffolding in making a collaborative oral presentation. English Language Teaching, 6(4), 64 - 73. doi:10.5539/elt.v6n4p64
Kalaja, P., & Maria Ferreira Barcelos, A. (2013). Beliefs in second language acquisition: teacher. The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics. doi:10.1002/9781405198431.wbeal0083
Kayi-Aydar, H. (2013). Exploring classroom discourse: Language in action. ELT Journal, 67(2), 268-270. doi:10.1093/elt/cct004
Lantolf, J. P. (2000). ‘Introducing sociocultural theory’ in J. P. Lantolf (Ed.). Sociocultural theory and second language learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lee, L. (2009). Scaffolding collaborative exchanges between expert and novice language teachers in threaded discussions. Foreign Language Annals, 42(2), 212-228.
Manzano, B. A. (2015). English teachers' beliefs, practices, and problems encountered in using communicative language teaching (CLT). International Journal of Education and Research, 3(3), 550 - 560. Retrieved from https://www.ijern.com/
Mohd-Asraf, R., Hossain, M. T., & Eng, T. K. (2019). Fifty years of communicative language teaching: A synthesis of critical implementation issues. Asian ESP
Journal, 15(1), 147-175.
OECD. (2009). Creating effective teaching and learning environments: First results from TALIS. Paris, France: OECD Publishing.
Richards, J. C., & Renandya, W. A. (2002). Methodology in language teaching: An anthology of current practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Tootkaboni, A. A. (2019). Teacher's beliefs and practices towards communicative language teaching in expanding circle. Revista Signos. Estudiosde Linguistica, 52(100), 265-289. doi:10.4067/S0718-09342019000200265
Vygotsky, L. (1978). Interaction between learning and development. In M. Gauvin & M. Coles (Eds.), Readings on the Development of Children (pp. 34-40). New York, NY: Scientific American Books.
Wood, D., Bruner, J. S., & Ross, G. (1976). The role of tutoring in problem solving. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 17(2), 89-100. doi:10.1111/j.1469- 7610.1976.tb00381.x