ISOLATED AND INTEGRATED GRAMMAR TEACHING IN TERTIARY EFL CONTEXT: INDONESIAN TEACHERS’ BELIEFS
While there are a lot of debates surrounding isolated and integrated grammar teaching, there is still limited research on their uses in EFL settings with larger class sizes and different learning environments. To fill in this gap, this case study investigates teachers’ beliefs toward isolated grammar teaching (Focus on Forms/FoFs) and integrated grammar teaching (largely a version of Focus on Form/FonF) in the context of EFL tertiary language study in Indonesia. The data were obtained by conducting semi-structured interviews with 10 Indonesian teachers of a private university’s English language program. In general, the teachers tended to value one of the approaches for different aspects, but there was less consensus on their effectiveness to promote students’ ability to apply grammar in context. In spite of this, most considered the approaches to complement each other. Nevertheless, over half of the participants indicated that isolated grammar teaching should assume a primary role in their context for practical reasons. Drawing on mostly teachers' experience in grammar teaching, this small-scale research offers more crucial insights into how isolated and integrated grammar teaching like FonFs and FonF are viewed at a more practical level amidst controversies on how to best teach grammar.
Basturkmen, H. (2012). Review of research into the correspondence between language teachers’ stated beliefs and practices. System, 40(2), 282-295.
Borg, S., & Burns, A. (2008). Integrating grammar in adult TESOL classrooms. Applied Linguistics, 29(3), 456-482.
Brown, H. (2000). Principles of language learning and teaching. New York: Addison-Wesley Longman, Inc.
Burgess, J., & Etherington, S. (2002). Focus on grammatical form: Explicit or implicit? System, 30, 433-458.
Canh, L.V., & Barnard, R. (2009). Teaching grammar: A survey of teachers’ attitudes in Vietnam. The Journal of Asia TEFL, 6(3), 245-273.
Cowan, R. (2008). The Teachers’ Grammar of English: The Course Book and Reference Guide. NY: Cambridge University Press.
DeKeyser, R. (2003). Implicit and explicit learning. In C. Doughty & M. Long (Eds.), Handbook of Second Language Acquisition (pp. 313–348). Oxford: Blackwell.
Doughty, C., & Williams, J. (1998). Focus on Form in Classroom Second Language Acquisition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Ellis, R. (2002). The place of grammar instruction in the second/foreign language curriculum. In E. Hinkel & S. Fotos (Eds.), New Perspectives on Grammar Teaching in Second Language Classrooms (pp. 17–34). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Ellis, R. (2006). Current issues in the teaching of grammar: An SLA perspective. TESOL Quarterly, 40(1), 83–108.
Ellis, R. (2016). Focus on form: A critical review. Language Teaching Research, 20(3), 405-428.
Farrell, T., & Lim. P. (2005). Conceptions of grammar teaching: A case study of teachers' beliefs and classroom practices. TESL-EJ, 9, 1-12.
Graus, J., & Coppen, P.A. (2015a). Grammatical difficulty: A student teacher perspective. Language Awareness, 24, 101-122.
Graus, J. & Coppen, P.A. (2015b). Student teacher beliefs on grammar instruction. Language Teaching Research. 1-29.
Krashen, S. (1982). Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Pergamon.
Larsen-Freeman, D. (2015). Research into practice: Grammar learning and teaching. Language Teaching, 48, 263-280.
Li, Z, & Song, M. (2007). The relationship between traditional English grammar teaching and communicative language teaching. US-China Education Review, 4(1), 62-65.
Mart, T. (2013). Teaching grammar in context: Why and how?. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 3(1), 124-129.
Norris, J.M., & Ortega, L. (2000). Effectiveness of L2 instruction: A research synthesis and quantitative meta-analysis. Language Learning, 50, 417-528.
Pawlak, M. (2012). The effects of focus on forms and focus on form in teaching complex grammatical structures. Indian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 38(1), 35-56.
Richards, J. C., Gallo, P. B., & Renandya, W.A. (2001). Exploring teachers’ belief and the processes of change. The PAC Journal, 1(1), 41-62.
Shmidt, R. (1990). The role of consciousness in second language learning. Applied Linguistics, 11, 129-58.
Smith, A. K. (2013). Grammar in context and isolated units: The impact of dichotomized teaching methods in a rural southern high school. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://scholarcommons.sc.edu/etd/876
Storch, N. (2015). Researching Grammar. In B. Paltridge & A. Phakiti. Research Methods in Applied Linguistics: A Practical Resource (pp. 349-368). London: Bloomsbury.
Uysal, H.H. & Bardakci, M. (2014). Teacher beliefs and practices of grammar teaching: focusing on meaning, form, or forms? South African Journal of Education, 34(1), 1-16.
Widodo, H.P. (2006). Approaches and procedures for teaching grammar. English Teaching: Practice and Critique, 5(1), 122-141.