Improving Eighth Graders’ Vocabulary Mastery through Students’ Learning Style-VARK-Based Flashcards


  • Nurhaliza Universitas Mercu Buana, Yogyakarta
  • Valentina Dyah Arum Sari Universitas Mercu Buana, Yogyakarta



Vocabulary, Flashcards, and Classroom Action Research


Mastering vocabulary will help students in expressing their ideas or understanding others in an EFL context. However, it turns out that students have difficulty learning English due to a lack of vocabulary mastery. Therefore, the selection and the use of appropriate media were needed to help students achieve the learning objectives. In this study, the VARK questionnaire was distributed to students to see their learning styles. The results were that most of them are Read/Write type of learners. Considering that fact, students learning style VARK-based flashcards were implemented as a medium in this Classroom Action Research. This study aims to find out how flashcards can improve vocabulary mastery in class VIII C students of one state Junior High School in Teluk Keramat, Kalimantan.  This study applied Classroom Action Research with 2 cycles with 33 student participants. The data analysis technique used mixed-method research; qualitative and quantitative. The instrument used questionnaires, interviews, observation checklists, and tests. The results indicated that students gained improvement after learning by using flashcards media. It was found that the average score of students in the pre-test was 34.9, post-test cycle I was 54.2, and post-test cycle II was 72.5. This proved that students' vocabulary mastery by using students' learning style VARK-based flashcards was improved. Further, it could be concluded that students learning style VARK-based flashcards gave a positive impact on the use of learning media in a Junior High School in Teluk Keramat to improve their vocabulary mastery.


Creswell, J.W., & Clark, V. L. P. (2017). Designing and conducting mixed methods research. SAGE Publications.

Gardner, D. (2013). Exploring vocabulary language in action. London: Routledge.

Harmer, W., & Rohimajaya, N. A. (2018). Using flash card as instructional media to enrich the students' vocabulary mastery in learning English. Journal of English Language Studies, 3(2), 167-177.

Husain, N. (2015). Language and Language Skills. Maulana Azad National Urdu University

Jaleel, S., & Thomas, A. M. (2019). Learning style theories and implication for teaching learning. USA: Horizon Research Publishing.

Khasinah, S. (2013). Classroom Action Research. Pionir, 1(1), 107-114.

Komachali, M. E., & Khodareza, M. (2012). The effect of using vocabulary flash card on Iranian pre-university students' vocabulary knowledge. International Education Studies, 5(3), 133-147.

Nugroho, S. Y., Nurkamto, J., & Sulisyowati, H. (2017). Improving students' vocabulary mastery using flashcards. English Education, 1(1), 1-15.

Peyman H, Sadeghifar J, Khajavikhan J, Yasemi M, Rasool M, Yaghoubi YM, Nahal MM, Karim H. (2014). Using VARK approach for assessing preferred learning styles of first-year medical sciences students: A survey from Iran. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, 8(8): GC01-4. 10.7860/JCDR/2014/8089.4667.

Regnault, A., Willgoss, T., & Barbic, S. (2018). Toward the use of mixed methods inquiry as best practice in health outcomes research. Journal of Patient-Reported Outcomes, 2(19), 1-4.

Rohmatillah. (2017). A study on students' difficulties in learning vocabulary. English Education Jurnal Tadris Bahasa Inggris, 6(1), 69-86.

Salawazo, I., Simbolon, M., Hutabarat, V., Veronika, A., & Saragih, E. (2020). Analysis of students’ vocabulary in learning English. Linguistic, English Education and Art (LEEA) Journal, 3(2), 469-475.

Salehi, M., & Torki, R. (2020). The effect of using cross-word, textual guess and wonder-word on the lexical development of Iranian students. International Journal of English Language and Translation Studies, 5(4), 181-190.

Sinaga, E. (2020). Improving students' vocabulary mastery using flashcards. The Explora Journal of English Linguistics and Language Teaching (JELLT), 6(1), 28-34.

Taufik, A., Saidi, S., & Apendi, T. (2019). Analysis the hidden advantages of written pretests for student intelligence. International Journal for Educational and Vocational Studies, 1(7), 713-718.

Thornbury, S. (2002). How to Teach Vocabulary. Essex: Pearson Education Limited.




How to Cite

Nurhaliza, & Sari, V. D. A. (2023). Improving Eighth Graders’ Vocabulary Mastery through Students’ Learning Style-VARK-Based Flashcards . SAGA: Journal of English Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, 4(1), 15–24.



Research articles